Our history of impunity, especially since the ascent to power of J.R. Jayewardene in 1977, brings us to the strange and largely un-mourned disappearance of the law. The Easter eruption, the evidence suggests, was a gamble the protagonists stumbled into in confronting the arithmetical realities of the coming presidential election. Their expectations appear to have gone awry. What transpired was in effect, a second attempt at disenfranchisement, this time of the Muslims. The Plantation Tamils were disenfranchised in 1949, as a follow up to the 1948 Citizenship Act.
Filed under accountability, citizen journalism, conspiracies, disparagement, doctoring evidence, electoral structures, governance, historical interpretation, Indian Ocean politics, Islamic fundamentalism, jihad, landscape wondrous, life stories, military strategy, Muslims in Lanka, politIcal discourse, power politics, Rajapaksa regime, security, self-reflexivity, Sinhala-Tamil Relations, sri lankan society, terrorism, the imaginary and the real, truth as casualty of war, vengeance, war crimes, world events & processes, zealotry
Richard Traumuller, Sara Kijewski & Markus Frietag: “The Silent Victims of Wartime Sexual Violence: Evidence from a List Experiment in Sri Lanka,” Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2937943 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2937943
ABSTRACT: Although sexual violence is believed to be widespread in wars, empirical evidence concerning its prevalence is often limited and rests on anecdotal accounts and selective sources. The main challenge to a better understanding of this phenomenon is that victims, out of feelings of shame or fear, tend to under-report experiences of this particular form of violence. In this paper we tackle this challenge in the micro-study of violent conflict by administering a list experiment in a representative survey in post-conflict Sri Lanka, which has only recently recovered from an ethnic civil war between the Singhalese and Tamils. This unobtrusive survey method reveals that around 13 percent of the Sri Lankan population has personally experienced sexual assault during the time of war – a prevalence that is ten times higher than could be elicited by direct questioning. Our method also identifies groups who are particularly vulnerable to this form of violence: members of the Tamil minority who have collaborated with rebel groups and, perhaps most strikingly, males. In fact men are twice as likely to have experienced wartime sexual violence than women. At the same time, they are far more likely to remain silent about their experience. Our experimental evidence therefore calls into question conventional wisdom on wartime sexual violence and, consequently, has important implications for policy.
37 Pages Posted: 22 Mar 2017
Muttukrishna Sarvananthan, being an article entitled ‘Terrorism’ or ‘Liberation’? Towards a distinction: A Case Study of the Armed Struggle of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)” in Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol.12/2, 2018 ….
Abstract: This article based on extensive empirical field research and primary sources/data attempts to distinguish terrorism from liberation / freedom struggle by means of a case study of the armed struggle of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka. It is argued here that the LTTE was primarily a terrorist organisation/movement because: (i) it’s struggle was overwhelmingly based on armed violence; (ii) it demanded support from the masses through persecution; (iii) it intentionally targeted civilians; (iv) it substantially relied on suicide attacks; (v) it substantially deployed under-age children; and (vi) it was proactively involved in internecine war.
Keywords: Civil War, Freedom Fighters, Liberation, LTTE, Sri Lanka, Tamil Tigers, Terrorism
Filed under atrocities, ethnicity, governance, historical interpretation, Indian Ocean politics, legal issues, life stories, LTTE, martyrdom, military strategy, politIcal discourse, power politics, Sinhala-Tamil Relations, sri lankan society, Tamil Tiger fighters, Uncategorized, unusual people, war crimes, war reportage
Amarnath Amarasingam: “Terrorism on the Teardrop Island: Understanding the Easter 2019 Attacks in Sri Lanka,” Sentinal May/June 2019, Volume 12, Issue 5 …. Combating Terrorism Center at West Point …..https://ctc.usma.edu/terrorism-teardrop-island-understanding-easter-2019-attacks-sri-lanka/…. with highlighting empasis added by the Editor. Thuppahi
Abstract: Over the course of Easter Sunday 2019, eight bombs went off in popular hotels and historical churches across Colombo, the capital city of Sri Lanka; other coastal cities in the west; and towns in the east of the country, killing hundreds. The Islamic State-claimed attack stunned terrorism analysts because there had been no known history of jihadi violence in the country. Several of the attackers were well educated, and two were the scions of a very wealthy family, providing the cell with advantages in its plotting. There were indications, however, from as early as January 2017 that individuals associated with the National Tawheed Jamaat were becoming increasingly supportive of the Islamic State and mobilizing to violence that was missed by local law enforcement. The Sri Lanka attacks may be early evidence that the Islamic State is taking an important and renewed interest in South Asia, following losses in Syria and Iraq.
Filed under Afghanistan, atrocities, centre-periphery relations, cultural transmission, ethnicity, historical interpretation, Indian Ocean politics, Islamic fundamentalism, jihad, landscape wondrous, life stories, martyrdom, Muslims in Lanka, politIcal discourse, power politics, religiosity, religious nationalism, security, self-reflexivity, sri lankan society, suicide bombing, the imaginary and the real, unusual people, vengeance, violence of language, war crimes, world events & processes, zealotry
Hassina Leelarathna in Los Angeles, writing for DAILY FT, 12 April 2019, where the title reads “Gota fires back against lawsuits”
Former Defence Secretary Gotabaya Rajapaksa has dismissed the two lawsuits filed against him as baseless and insisted that they would only motivate him and his supporters to push for political change in Sri Lanka. “These lawsuits have been filed to delay the process and discourage me. I have handed the matter to my lawyers [in Los Angeles] to take care of and I’m looking ahead to what needs to be done for our country,” said Rajapaksa, commenting on the two civil lawsuits filed against him in the Central District of California. Continue reading
Filed under accountability, asylum-seekers, conspiracies, doctoring evidence, legal issues, life stories, politIcal discourse, power politics, refugees, security, self-reflexivity, sri lankan society, Tamil civilians, the imaginary and the real, unusual people, vengeance, war crimes, war reportage, world events & processes